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Professional Translators’ Establishment of Skopos

ارسال کننده : جناب آقای مهدی بوربورمرادی
سطح فعالیت : مدیر ارشد
ایمیل : mahdibourbourmoradi[@]gmail.com
تاریخ ارسال : ۱۹ مرداد ۱۳۹۶
دفعات بازدید : 255
زبان نوشتاری : انگلیسی
تعداد صفحه : 126
فرمت فایل : pdf
حجم فایل : 733 KB

قیمت فایل : رایگان
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Before the 1970s, translation scholars were primarily interested in researching translation products. Translation researchers compared source texts with one or more target texts and studied the differences between the source text and the target text or the different target
texts. This approach later started to include an interest in the translation process and finally, in the translator himself. The above-mentioned approach with focus on comparison of source texts and target texts was much concerned with the concept of equivalence, and how it could be reached. However, in the 1970s and 1980s, the equivalence-based approach shifted and focus was instead placed on functionalism in the
translation process, and on the receivers of the target text. The skopos theory emerged with an emphasis on the function of the target text and on its receiver.

1. Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Previous research involving briefs .......................................................................... 2
1.2. Why is it interesting to research the use of briefs? ................................................. 4
1.3. Research questions .................................................................................................. 5
1.4. Outline..................................................................................................................... 7
1.5. The receivers of the thesis....................................................................................... 8
1.6. Delimitation............................................................................................................. 8
1.7. Explanation and definition of central concepts ....................................................... 9
1.7.1. Definition of translation ................................................................................... 9
1.7.2. Definition of Translation Studies ................................................................... 10
1.7.3. Definition of translation process .................................................................... 10
1.7.4. Definition of translator ................................................................................... 10
1.7.5. Definition of brief........................................................................................... 11
1.7.6. Abbreviations used......................................................................................... 12
1.8. General methodology (in short) ............................................................................ 12
2. Theoretical framework ................................................................................................. 13
2.1. Skopos theory........................................................................................................ 14
2.1.1. The six rules of skopos theory........................................................................ 15
2.1.2. Criticism of skopos theory ............................................................................. 17
2.1.3. Summary of and response to criticism ........................................................... 18
2.1.4. Summary of the skopos theory....................................................................... 19
2.2. The translation process.......................................................................................... 19
2.2.1. Two- and three-phase models ........................................................................ 20
2.2.2. Nord’s model.................................................................................................. 20
2.3. Translating without a brief .................................................................................... 24
2.4. ST-orientation as default ....................................................................................... 26
2.4.1. ST-orientation as default when translating without a brief ............................ 27
2.5. Translation strategies............................................................................................. 28
2.5.1. Translation microstrategies and skopos theory .............................................. 28
2.5.2. Introduction to translation strategies general ................................................. 28
2.5.3. Macrostrategies .............................................................................................. 29
2.5.4. Microstrategies ............................................................................................... 31
2.6. Theory about medical translation.......................................................................... 36
2.6.1. Greek and Latin influence .............................................................................. 36
2.6.2. The problem of Latin-based terms in English-Danish translation ................. 37
2.6.3. Equivalence in LSP translation ...................................................................... 37
2.6.4. Direct translation in medical translation ........................................................ 38
2.6.5. Koller’s equivalence model............................................................................ 38
2.6.6. The importance of briefs in LSP/medical translation..................................... 40
2.6.7. Microstrategies revisited ................................................................................ 40
2.6.8. Conclusion...................................................................................................... 40
3. Methodology ................................................................................................................ 42
3.1. Translation task ..................................................................................................... 42
3.1.1. Participants ..................................................................................................... 42
3.1.2. The source text ...............................................................................................

3.1.3. The brief for the ST........................................................................................ 46
3.1.4. Pilot study....................................................................................................... 46
3.1.5. Correspondence with the translation companies............................................ 48
3.1.6. Analysis sheet for 10 TTs............................................................................... 49
3.2. Questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 50
3.2.1. Argumentation for choosing two empirical methods ..................................... 50
3.2.2. Argumentation for choosing a questionnaire ................................................. 50
3.2.3. Respondents ................................................................................................... 51
3.2.4. Elaboration of the questionnaire..................................................................... 52
3.2.5 Increasing the response rate ............................................................................ 54
3.2.6. Pre-testing of the questionnaire...................................................................... 55
3.2.7. Response rate analysis.................................................................................... 56
4. Analysis........................................................................................................................ 57
4.1. Results from 10 translation tasks .......................................................................... 58
4.1.1. The skopos for the ST .................................................................................... 58
4.1.2. Analysis of microstrategies and macrostrategies ........................................... 59
4.1.3. Translation brief ............................................................................................. 60
4.1.4. Analysis of two TTs made with brief............................................................. 60
4.1.5. The eight TTs made without a brief ............................................................... 66
4.1.6. Conclusion for translation task....................................................................... 89
4.2. Results from questionnaire.................................................................................... 93
4.2.1. Do professional translators normally receive briefs from their clients? ........ 93
4.2.2. Do professional translators ask for a brief when they do not receive one?.... 95
4.2.3. How do professional translators translate when they do not have a brief? .... 98
4.2.4. How do professional translators translate when they have a brief? ............. 100
4.2.5. Are professional translators able to establish skopos based without having
received an explicit brief. ....................................................................................... 102
4.2.6. Are briefs important for practising translators? ........................................... 104
4.2.7. Conclusion on questionnaire results............................................................. 106
5. Conclusion.................................................................................................................. 108
5.1. Ideas for future research in this area ................................................................... 111
5.2. Implications for translator training......................................................................

5.2. Implications for translator training...................................................................... 112
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 119
Figure and table overview .............................................................................................. 122

Before the 1970s, translation scholars were primarily interested in researching translation products. Translation researchers compared source texts with one or more target texts and studied the differences between the source text and the target text or the different target
texts. This approach later started to include an interest in the translation process and finally, in the translator himself. The above-mentioned approach with focus on comparison of source texts and target texts was much concerned with the concept of equivalence, and how it could be reached. However, in the 1970s and 1980s, the equivalence-based approach shifted and focus was instead placed on functionalism in the
translation process, and on the receivers of the target text. The skopos theory emerged with an emphasis on the function of the target text and on its receiver.

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